A dysfunctional tongue does not exert the forces necessary for the growth and maintenance of teeth in their place.
Occlusion is the way the teeth fit together when the mouth is closed. A correct bite is when the upper and lower teeth fit together perfectly.
The tooth is articulated in the bone thanks to a ligament. The teeth are placed at the point of balance of the forces exerted towards the outside by the tongue on the one hand and towards the inside by the lips and the cheeks on the other hand. A good swallowing, accompanied by a good chewing and a resting position of the tongue, helps to maintain the balance of forces and thus a correct and durable occlusion.
Conversely, dysfunctions of the tongue disrupt this balance: they move the teeth, do not widen the palate to give them room or prevent their growth. The result is a bad occlusion, which is called “malocclusion”.
These disorders appear mainly at night when there are continuous thrusts that have a constraining action on the dental arches.
The consequences of a malocclusion are various. First of all, a person with a malocclusion has difficulty chewing food. In addition, when the teeth are not well aligned, the tongue no longer cleans the food residue between the teeth, increasing the risk of cavities or poorly established teeth. The risk of premature tooth loss is thus increased.
Malocclusions are obviously visible and have a strong psychological impact and lead to a loss of self-confidence.
According to various studies, 60 to 80% of the population is or has been affected by malocclusions, more or less disabling. These malocclusions have many symptoms: asymmetries, bone shift, insufficient growth of teeth, misalignment of teeth…
This can result in facial disharmony: in the chin, the upper jaw, the symmetry of the face…
The correction of malocclusions is obtained, depending on the case, either through treatment by a dentist or through orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic treatment consists of exerting forces to move the teeth in order to align them and put them in a class I occlusion, sometimes through maxillofacial surgery.
Since lingual dysfunction is often the cause of malocclusions, not correcting it can lead to longer and less stable treatment and the occurrence of recurrences after treatment. The bonded retention wire is used to avoid the effects of recurrence… which occur as soon as these wires are removed.
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